Blockchain is rapidly changing the web landscape. As a result, people working on the back-end are having to constantly improve their skill sets.
So, if you’re a skilled developer, you’d always want to stay ahead of the curve and equip yourself with the latest and most demanding skills like blockchain development.
But one of the first questions that will pop up in your mind would be: What programming languages will I use for blockchain development?
Well, the good news is you can use some of the coding languages you already know for blockchain development.
In this blog, I’ll explore some of the best blockchain programming languages for 2023.
Let’s dive right in!
What is Blockchain?
Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed ledger technology that enables secure, transparent, and tamper-resistant record-keeping of transactions across a network of computers.
Its immutable nature provides data permanence—once inside a block, it cannot be changed.
Only trust is required during data entry, avoiding dependency on costly, prone-to-error third parties.
Since Bitcoin‘s inception in 2009, blockchain has spawned cryptocurrencies, decentralized banking, non-fungible currencies (NFTs), and smart contracts.
Beyond currency, blockchain is a transformative force that ensures data integrity and safety across multiple industries.
Here is an image for you to understand how blockchain works:
Wondering how Blockchain can benefit your business?
Explore our blog on the practical uses of blockchain technology and discover the transformative impact it can have on your industry.
Why is Blockchain So Popular?
Blockchain has gained popularity due to a collection of distinguishing and exceptional properties that set it apart from common database systems.
As reported by Statista, worldwide investment in blockchain solutions was $6.6 billion in 2021, with forecasts indicating that it might rise to $19 billion by 2024.
Blockchain technology is attracting major investment not only from governments but also from small and large corporations, as well as colleges and universities.
Look at this image to understand how blockchain is being used in various businesses.
Here are some crucial elements that contribute to Blockchain Technology’s success:
- Immutability: The indestructible nature of data on Blockchain.
- Peer-to-Peer Network: A decentralized architecture that allows for seamless interaction.
- Transparency with Security: Striking the right balance between transaction transparency and data privacy.
- Decentralization: Functioning without a centralized authority, promoting a dispersed network.
- Enhanced Security: Providing enhanced security measures over traditional systems.
- Consensus Mechanism: A consensus approach facilitates fair and timely decision-making.
These characteristics combine to make blockchain a popular choice, fueling its appeal in transforming how we manage and safeguard data in the age of digitization.
What is a Blockchain Programming Language?
A blockchain programming language is a specific set of coding languages designed to develop blockchain-based apps and smart contracts.
These languages provide developers with the tools and syntax to develop decentralized and secure blockchain technology apps.
These languages make it easier to execute self-executing agreements with predefined conditions by automating processes and eliminating the need for middlemen.
The choice of blockchain programming language depends on several factors, such as the specific blockchain platform, the type of application being developed, and the developer’s experience and preferences.
What are the 15 Best Blockchain Programming Languages in 2023?
Choosing the correct programming language is crucial for successful project development.
From creating smart contracts to building decentralized applications (DApps), the choice of language can significantly impact your blockchain projects’ efficiency, security, and scalability.
I have listed below the most popular blockchain programming languages for 2023, along with their benefits, drawbacks, and use cases.
Let’s check these out!
Solidity is the most commonly used language for blockchain development and writing and deploying smart contracts, especially on the Ethereum chain.
If you are a beginner, Solidity is the most appropriate choice to start with.
This language is designed to work closely with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
Solidity founder, Christian Reitwiessner, mentioned that even though it may look a bit complex if you’ve done some programming before, Solidity’s code is usually understandable.
- Widely adopted for Ethereum smart contracts
- Built-in security features and automated bug detection
- Compatibility with popular development tools
- Security vulnerabilities have been reported
- Learning curve for developers new to blockchain
- Dependency on the Ethereum ecosystem
- Decentralized Finance (DeFi) projects
- Token creation and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
Java, a famous programming language, is used for regular programming and creating important blockchain programs.
James Gosling founded Java in 1995. This programming language supports the Application Programming Interface (API).
Java plays a key role in blockchain development, especially regarding security. Its importance stems from its ability to prevent security vulnerabilities by avoiding explicit pointers.
Java’s security manager allows developers to define access constraints for a class.
This feature enhances the security foundation of blockchain applications by enabling developers to specify and implement strict access controls.
The features most used in blockchain programming with Java are API, object-oriented programming (OOP), and portability.
- Platform independence facilitates broad deployment
- Large developer community for extensive support
- Scalability for enterprise-level blockchain applications
- Execution speed may be slower compared to some languages
- Verbosity in code can lead to longer development times
- Memory consumption can be higher than in more efficient languages
- Enterprise-level blockchain applications
- Supply chain management solutions
Python is an open-source programming language that stands out. So, it means Python is publicly available and often governed by a community.
Because of this openness, you can easily use Python to simplify your blockchain development process.
I have always found Python to be the best programming language for blockchain development.
Its readability and simple syntax streamline the developing process and improve debugging, making the coding environment easier for developers.
That’s how it has become popular in recent years.
Python’s various capabilities make it a fantastic tool for blockchain development, especially for new developers looking to learn the ropes or quickly prototype their ideas.
It balances clarity and reliability, which makes it a popular choice among blockchain developers.
- Rapid development with concise syntax
- Extensive libraries like Web3 and PyCryptodome
- Large and active community for support
- Execution speed may be slower compared to lower-level languages
- Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) can restrict parallel processing
- Limited use in smart contracts due to design considerations
- Prototyping and testing in blockchain projects
- Data analysis and extraction of insights from blockchain data
Its asynchronous, event-driven architecture allows for handling concurrent requests, enhancing performance and responsiveness.
- Asynchronous processing for concurrent operations
- Ubiquity for end-to-end blockchain solutions
- Fast prototyping with a simplified language structure
- Single-threaded nature can limit parallel processing
- Security concerns when used on the client side
- Limited performance for computationally intensive tasks
- Development of decentralized applications (DApps)
- Smart contract development on various blockchain platforms
For blockchain development solutions, PHP serves a wide variety of difficult ranges. The freely accessible and object-oriented characteristics of PHP are its most significant advantages.
People who develop blockchains like using PHP because of its extensive library of tools, which makes their work easier.
PHP is a programming language that is open for anyone to use and can work on different types of computers. The Zend Engine that helps it run.
People started officially writing down the rules for how PHP works in 2014, but before that, it was evolving without any official rules.
- Widespread use in web development
- Quick development with a simple syntax
- Large community for extensive support
- Execution speed may be slower compared to some languages
- Limited use in blockchain development
- Lacks modern language features
- Dynamic website development
- Content Management Systems (CMS) like WordPress
C++ was originally used in 1985, but it is still widely utilized among those developing blockchain and DeFi devices.
The key reason for this popularity is that it provides excellent memory and CPU control. It is required for any blockchain, along with great efficiency, code separation, and compile time flexibility.
Interestingly, Bitcoin was created using C++, although its creator, Bjarne Stroustrup, could have been more excited about it.
C++ is often used for smart contracts on the EOS blockchain.
It is frequently used in blockchain development to design the vital components of blockchain networks, such as consensus techniques and cryptographic fundamentals that enable safe and effective communication between nodes.
- High performance and efficiency
- Extensive libraries and community support
- Suitable for computationally intensive tasks in blockchain
- Manual memory management can lead to potential issues
- Steeper learning curve for beginners
- Code can be error-prone due to flexibility
- Core development of blockchain platforms
- Cryptocurrency development, including Bitcoin
C# is an appreciated programming language created by Microsoft, and people call it “C Sharp.”
It is perfect for blockchain businesses due to its scalability, interoperability with Windows OS, and vast developer community.
C#’s simplicity of learning, as demonstrated by Ethereum developer Vitalik Buterin, presents it as a valuable language for developing scalable and interoperable blockchain applications that smoothly integrate diverse platforms.
According to Visual Studio Magazine, around 6 million developers worldwide use C#.
Some famous blockchain programs like Stratis, NEO, and IOTA are made with C#.
C# uses simple methods like Object-Oriented and Extensible Markup Language to do things without needing much help from the person writing the code.
- Versatility for various applications
- Integration with Microsoft technologies
- Strongly-typed language for code safety
- Limited cross-platform support compared to some languages
- Smaller community compared to more widespread languages
- Learning curve for developers new to the language
- Enterprise-level blockchain applications
- Windows-based applications and software
8. Go (Golang)
After its release, Google’s open-source language Go, or Golang was applauded for its performance, especially for blockchain-based applications.
Go is an excellent choice for blockchain programming since it is compiled and statically typed.
Managing a large blockchain project can often be difficult as it requires thousands of lines of code. We need an easy-to-use programming language to make maintenance easier. This is where Go comes into play.
Go has a low learning curve and a minimal amount of methods for performing common tasks, making it an effective language for developing complicated blockchain systems.
One of the key benefits of choosing Golang for blockchain development is its ability to simplify error checking and support smooth app development.
If you want to build a blockchain with Golang, you can check out this book, in which I found some insightful information about Golang’s role in blockchain development. A part of the book described that the multi-core CPU architecture is perfect for Go.
Thousands of Go-routines, or lightweight threads, can be created without issues. It’s beneficial for highly parallel and asynchronous software, like blockchain networks.
- Efficient concurrency handling
- Fast compilation times for quick development
- Scalability for building efficient blockchain systems
- Smaller ecosystem compared to some languages
- Learning curve for developers new to Go
- Less feature-rich compared to some languages
- Developing scalable and efficient blockchain systems
- Backend development for seamless transaction processing
You should consider Simplicity for blockchain development due to its specialized design, which offers unique advantages.
Simplicity is a blockchain programming language that was created as a replacement for Bitcoin script.
“Like Bitcoin Script and the EVM, our language is designed as low-level language for executing smart contracts, not as a language for coding in directly. As such, we expect it to be a target for other, higher-level, languages to be compiled to. We call our new language Simplicity.”
This language prioritizes security and reliability, providing concise code with reduced error susceptibility.
Writing smart contracts and blockchain applications becomes more straightforward, and Simplicity competes well in performance, boasting speed and energy efficiency.
Its scalability suits large-scale applications, offering features for efficient blockchain development.
Simplicity stands out for its user-friendly design, ensuring an intuitive and easy learning curve and enabling beginners to grasp the language quickly.
- Readability for secure smart contract development
- Strong emphasis on security features
- Support for formal verification
- Limited adoption and smaller community
- Learning curve for developers transitioning from traditional languages
- Primarily focused on smart contract development
- Secure and readable smart contract development
- Projects where formal verification is crucial
Ruby is another reliable programming language you can use for blockchain development. If you already have a sound expertise in Ruby, it’s going to be relatively straightforward for you to adapt to blockchain development with Ruby.
Because of its versatility, rapid development, and strong community support, it is the greatest option for developers looking to construct blockchain-based apps.
It’s created by Yukihiro Matsumoto in Japan, and is known for being easy to use and efficient with memory.
Using third-party APIs and plugins, Ruby can allow you to organize Blockchain Programming.
It also supports multi-paradigm, which implies that you can create Blockchain Programming on several platforms.
Specifically, Asian developers value Ruby highly for developing Blockchain-based applications and systems.
- Elegant and concise syntax for readability
- High developer productivity
- Strong community support and rich ecosystem
- Slower execution speed compared to some languages
- Memory-intensive for certain applications
- Limited adoption in blockchain development
- Web development and building dynamic websites
- Rapid prototyping and development projects
Rust is a sophisticated and modern programming language that is gaining traction in the blockchain development community.
You can benefit from choosing Rust due to its memory safety feature, eliminating concerns about common issues like memory leaks or pointer errors.
Rust’s concurrent execution capability aligns with the decentralized nature of blockchain, providing speed comparable to C and C++, which is crucial for high-throughput blockchain networks.
You can choose Rust if you want to work with superfast networks and unique blockchain technologies or if you’re going to create for Solana or NEAR.
Its smooth interoperability with other languages simplifies integration into existing systems and libraries.
This streamlines the development process for beginners, enabling easy interaction of blockchain systems within broader technological ecosystems.
- Memory safety features for secure programming
- High performance comparable to low-level languages
- Efficient handling of concurrent operations
- Learning curve for developers new to Rust
- Smaller ecosystem compared to more established languages
- Limited libraries compared to some languages
- Developing secure and efficient blockchain infrastructure
- Projects requiring high-performance systems programming
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standard programming language for managing and manipulating blockchains.
Its syntax is based on English-like commands and consists of several sub-languages. In the blockchain domain, it is utilized to construct safe and efficient organizational solutions.
SQL’s versatility makes it an essential tool for blockchain developers in effectively managing and extracting valuable insights from data.
See this image to realize the importance of learning SQL as a developer and getting jobs:
- Standardized language for database management
- Efficient querying and manipulation of relational data
- Widely adopted and supported across database systems
- Limited use for non-relational databases
- Syntax variations across database systems
- Can be vulnerable to SQL injection if not handled carefully
- Database management and querying in relational databases
- Data analysis and reporting in business applications
Erlang is a concurrent, functional programming language designed for building robust and scalable distributed systems.
Developed within Ericsson in the late 1980s, Erlang gained prominence for its reliability, fault tolerance, and efficiency in handling concurrent processes.
It was initially created to address the specific needs of telecommunication systems, where high concurrency and fault tolerance are critical.
Erlang’s unique blend of concurrency, fault tolerance, and ease of code maintenance continues to make it a valuable choice for developers tackling challenges in building resilient distributed systems.
Here’s a tutorial about using Erlang in blockchain development you can check out to understand it better.
- Designed for fault-tolerant and scalable systems
- Concurrency features for distributed computing
- High fault tolerance with hot-swapping capabilities
- Syntax may be unconventional for some developers
- Learning curve for those new to functional programming
- Limited adoption outside specific domains
- Telecommunication infrastructure
- Distributed and fault-tolerant systems
Rholang is a special language used for working with blockchains and especially, smart contracts.
This language takes a functional instead of an object-oriented approach, which is beneficial in tackling many blockchain challenges.
Rholang apps analyze and solve the entire program as a set of functions.
This is different from languages such as C or Python, which employ variables to store data and modify the value of those variables over time.
It is also more accessible for developers because when they write the code, it’s easy to understand what’s on the screen. This makes it less stressful for developers.
If you’re into blockchain programming, Rholang might be something worth checking out!
Let’s identify the reasons:
- Concurrency model for efficient smart contract execution
- Formal verification support for secure contracts
- Designed for the RChain blockchain ecosystem
- Limited adoption outside the RChain platform
- Learning curve for developers new to concurrent models
- Specialized use for RChain-based DApps
- Smart contract development on the RChain blockchain
- Building decentralized applications with concurrent execution
CX is a programming language for all purposes intended to be simple to learn and use while simultaneously being quite powerful.
CX is a compiled language that must be transformed into machine code before execution. So, it is faster and more efficient than interpreted languages like Python.
Developed by Skycoin, CX is a programming language that aims to provide an easy learning and implementing environment, as you can see on the official Skycoin website.
CX programming language can be used to create smart contracts, decentralized applications, and blockchain-based games.
Though CX is less popular than other blockchain programming languages like Solidity and C++, as it is still a promising language, you can consider it for your next blockchain project.
- Simplicity in syntax for ease of development
- Lightweight concurrency for efficient blockchain execution
- Designed for building blockchain
- Limited adoption compared to more established languages
- Smaller community support
- Learning curve for developers new to CX
- Decentralized application (DApp) development
- Blockchain projects requiring simplicity and efficiency
So, now it becomes clear that blockchain programming languages are diverse and innovative.
Each language possesses unique strengths, addressing the changing requirements of decentralized applications.
Whether you are an experienced developer or an aspiring enthusiast, staying informed about these languages is essential for unlocking the full potential of blockchain technology.
The Requirement of Programming in Blockchain
Programming is required to realize the full potential of blockchain. This is why:
1. Smart Agreements: Using high-level programming languages, developers can express the terms of smart agreements implemented on the blockchain.
2. Mathematical Security: Using mathematics secures the blockchain’s immutability. Once established, it is irreversible, permanently protecting verified transactions—ideal for financial transactions.
3. Self-Executing Contracts: Blockchain-based systems function as self-executing contracts, with participant conditions expressly coded.
4. Capability for Revolution: Blockchain’s programmability goes beyond historical data preservation to enable real-time commercial transactions defined by contract specifications.
These are the reasons why blockchain’s transformational potential lies in programming.
Picking the Right Blockchain Programming for Your Project
The diverse landscape of blockchain programming languages can be both exciting and overwhelming.
So, how can you navigate this complicated phase and choose the correct language for your project?
I always follow a 7-step guide to go with the right one; you can follow this too!
The 7 key considerations to follow for picking the perfect blockchain programming language to bring your vision to life are –
Define Project Goals
First, you must define your project objectives.
Understanding the specific goals of your project is the foundational step in selecting the correct blockchain programming language.
So, clearly define your project’s objectives first to align them with the strengths of the chosen programming language.
Consider Skill Set
Assess the expertise of your development team before making a decision. Always prefer a language that aligns with your proficiency.
This ensures a smoother implementation process, minimizes the learning curve, and maximizes the team’s ability to deliver a successful project.
Next, you will have to evaluate the scalability requirements of your project.
Some blockchain programming languages are better suited for large-scale applications, while others excel in smaller, niche projects.
Choosing a language that aligns with your scalability needs ensures your project can grow seamlessly as demands increase.
The strength of a language’s community can significantly impact your development journey.
That’s why you should opt for a language with a vibrant and active community.
This ensures you have access to a wealth of resources, timely updates, and a network of fellow developers for troubleshooting and collaboration.
Focus on languages with solid security features to safeguard your project against vulnerabilities and threats.
Assess the security measures embedded in each language and choose one that aligns with the level of protection your project demands.
You should consider the need for interoperability if your project involves integrating existing systems or other blockchains.
Choosing a language that supports interoperability ensures seamless connections, facilitating the smooth operation of your blockchain project within a broader technological ecosystem.
Consider your project timeline when selecting a blockchain programming language.
Some languages may expedite development, while others require more time for mastery.
Align your language choice with your timeline expectations to ensure timely and efficient project delivery.
By carefully considering these factors, you can pick the right blockchain programming language for your project, like I do.
And this is how your chosen programming language can align with your project’s technical requirements and advance it toward success.
How You Can Learn Blockchain Programming
Do you want to learn blockchain programming with a strategic and hands-on learning approach?
Then, dig into these vital resources.
These helped me when I was a beginner, so will undoubtedly help you too:
- Online Courses: Platforms like Coursera, Udemy, and edX offer comprehensive courses covering both theoretical and practical aspects of blockchain technology.
- Documentation and Developer Portals: Immerse yourself in hands-on learning through Ethereum’s Solidity documentation, Diem’s developer portal, and Polkadot’s substrate documentation.
- Blockchain Communities: Join communities like Stack Exchange’s Ethereum community, Reddit’s r/ethereum, and r/diem for real-time assistance and insightful discussions.
- Books: Deepen your understanding with titles like “Mastering Blockchain” by Imran Bashir and “Blockchain Basics” by Daniel Drescher.
- Workshops and Bootcamps: Participate in workshops and boot camps by institutions like Consensys Academy and Blockchain Council for practical experience.
Begin this learning journey with dedication, recognizing the dynamic nature of the blockchain landscape.
Stay informed, experiment, and engage with the community for a well-rounded learning experience.
Why Choose Core Devs as Your Blockchain Developer
Are you looking for a team of experts who can build a successful blockchain for you?
You must choose Core Devs, then, where your blockchain dreams transform into reality.
Discover why clients like you should choose us for a flawless journey from ideation to a potent, market-ready blockchain.
Begin your blockchain development journey with a team that navigates the ever-evolving landscape with finesse.
Our seasoned experts bring a wealth of knowledge, ensuring your app meets and exceeds industry standards.
Explore the frontier of technology with Core Devs. We go beyond the basics, utilizing cutting-edge tools and frameworks.
Your app is not just a project; it’s a testament to our commitment to innovation and staying ahead in the dynamic blockchain space.
We prioritize a partnership that materializes your vision. Our client-centric approach fosters active collaboration, ensuring every line of code aligns with your goals.
From concept to deployment, your aspirations drive our development process.
Trust is earned through results. At Core Devs, our track record speaks volumes.
Past projects showcase our commitment to delivering high-quality, on-time, and within-budget solutions.
Join a growing list of satisfied clients who’ve experienced the Core Devs difference.
Assurance Beyond Code
Security isn’t an add-on; it’s embedded in our DNA. Core Devs prioritizes the safety of your app and users.
Our development practices adhere to industry-best standards, safeguarding your blockchain application from potential threats and vulnerabilities.
Your blockchain’s launch is just the beginning. Experience a journey, not a destination, with Core Devs.
Our commitment extends post-deployment, providing continuous support and maintenance.
Your blockchain stays optimized, secure, and ready for the future.
Commence on a transformative journey with Core Devs — where passion meets precision in crafting unparalleled blockchains!
Your vision, our commitment; let’s build the future together.
The Future of Blockchain Programming
Blockchain programming languages are evolving rapidly.
Vyper, another Ethereum language, prioritizes simplicity.
As blockchain technology advances, languages must adapt to meet growing demands for efficiency and security.
Developers can expect a dynamic landscape with continuous innovations in blockchain programming languages, shaping the future of decentralized applications and smart contracts.
My Final Take
I trust that this exploration of the top 15 blockchain programming languages has equipped you with valuable insights into the dynamic world of blockchain technology.
Now, it’s your turn:
What’s the most compelling aspect that caught your attention?
Are you considering discovering blockchain development using one of the highlighted programming languages?
Do you have a specific question about a language or the overall landscape that you’d like to discuss further? If yes, then do not hesitate to reach out to Core Devs!
Frequently Asked Questions about Future Programming Languages
1. What trends can we expect in future programming languages?
Future languages may prioritize security, concurrency, and simplicity. Innovations like AI integration and quantum computing could also influence language design.
2. How can one best learn blockchain programming?
For a comprehensive understanding of blockchain programming, consider joining blockchain communities, exploring online tutorials, watching educational content on platforms like YouTube, and staying abreast of blockchain news.
Accessible free courses are also available, providing a structured entry into the exciting realm of blockchain programming.
3. How will new programming languages address scalability issues?
Emerging languages aim to enhance scalability by introducing features like improved parallelism, optimized resource management, and efficient data handling.
4. What role will community collaboration play in shaping programming languages?
Community feedback will be crucial, fostering a collaborative approach to refining languages and ensuring adaptability to diverse development needs.
5. What programming languages find use in blockchain development?
6. How can developers stay updated on the latest advancements in programming languages?
Following reputable tech blogs, participating in developer communities, and attending conferences are effective ways to stay informed about evolving programming language landscapes.